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In addition, Clark did a fantastic job in explaining the most complex theories in physics for laypersons like meself, his involvement in politics and his role in the invention of atomic bomb. Prior to his death in late , Einstein summarized his feelings about his role in the creation of the atomic bomb:. I made one great mistake in my life… when I signed the letter to President Roosevelt recommending that atom bombs be made; but there was some justification — the danger that the Germans would make them.
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At the start of his scientific work, Einstein realized the inadequacies of Newtonian mechanics and his special theory of relativity stemmed from an attempt to reconcile the laws of mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. He dealt with classical problems of statistical mechanics and problems in which they were merged with quantum theory: this led to an explanation of the Brownian movement of molecules. He investigated the thermal properties of light with a low radiation density and his observations laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In his early days in Berlin, Einstein postulated that the correct interpretation of the special theory of relativity must also furnish a theory of gravitation and in he published his paper on the general theory of relativity.
During this time he also contributed to the problems of the theory of radiation and statistical mechanics. In the s, Einstein embarked on the construction of unified field theories, although he continued to work on the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory, and he persevered with this work in America.
Book Review: Einstein, The Life and Times by Ronald W. Clark
He contributed to statistical mechanics by his development of the quantum theory of a monatomic gas and he has also accomplished valuable work in connection with atomic transition probabilities and relativistic cosmology. After his retirement he continued to work towards the unification of the basic concepts of physics, taking the opposite approach, geometrisation, to the majority of physicists.
Among his non-scientific works, About Zionism , Why War? Albert Einstein received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine and philosophy from many European and American universities. In the following decade, he immigrated to the U.
His work also had a major impact on the development of atomic energy. In his later years, Einstein focused on unified field theory. With his passion for inquiry, Einstein is generally considered the most influential physicist of the 20th century. Einstein grew up in a secular Jewish family. His father, Hermann Einstein, was a salesman and engineer who, with his brother, founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J.
Einstein had one sister, Maja, born two years after him. Einstein attended elementary school at the Luitpold Gymnasium in Munich. However, he felt alienated there and struggled with the institution's rigid pedagogical style. He also had what were considered speech challenges, though he developed a passion for classical music and playing the violin, which would stay with him into his later years. Most significantly, Einstein's youth was marked by deep inquisitiveness and inquiry.
Thus, during his teens, Einstein penned what would be seen as his first major paper, "The Investigation of the State of Aether in Magnetic Fields. Hermann Einstein relocated the family to Milan, Italy, in the mids after his business lost out on a major contract. With their son rejoining them in Italy, his parents understood Einstein's perspective but were concerned about his future prospects as a school dropout and draft dodger.
Einstein was eventually able to gain admission into the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, specifically due to his superb mathematics and physics scores on the entrance exam.
Albert Einstein - Quotes, Education & Facts - Biography
He was still required to complete his pre-university education first, and thus attended a high school in Aarau, Switzerland helmed by Jost Winteler. Einstein lived with the schoolmaster's family and fell in love with Winteler's daughter, Marie. Einstein later renounced his German citizenship and became a Swiss citizen at the dawn of the new century. After graduating, Einstein faced major challenges in terms of finding academic positions, having alienated some professors over not attending class more regularly in lieu of studying independently.
Einstein eventually found steady work in after receiving a referral for a clerk position in a Swiss patent office. In —seen by many as a "miracle year" for the theorist—Einstein had four papers published in the Annalen der Physik , one of the best-known physics journals of the era. Two focused on the photoelectric effect and Brownian motion.
Einstein married Mileva Maric on Jan. While attending school in Zurich, Einstein met Maric, a Serbian physics student. Einstein continued to grow closer to Maric, but his parents were strongly against the relationship due to her ethnic background.
Nonetheless, Einstein continued to see her, with the two developing a correspondence via letters in which he expressed many of his scientific ideas. That same year the couple had a daughter, Lieserl, who might have been later raised by Maric's relatives or given up for adoption.
Her ultimate fate and whereabouts remain a mystery. The couple had two sons, Hans Albert Einstein who became a well-known hydraulic engineer and Eduard "Tete" Einstein who was diagnosed with schizophrenia as a young man.
The Einsteins' marriage would not be a happy one, with the two divorcing in and Maric having an emotional breakdown in connection to the split. Einstein, as part of a settlement, agreed to give Maric any funds he might receive from possibly winning the Nobel Prize in the future.
Related Einstein: The Life and Times (Bloomsbury Reader)
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