Participatory scenario planning can be a valuable tool to support recreational land use planning in glacial landscapes, and to improve anticipatory adaptation to potentially undesirable future changes. MRD regularly invites experts to review books on mountain-relevant topics. We have just sent several new books out for review. See the whole list by clicking here — and watch out for the upcoming reviews! Mountain biodiversity provides billions of people with vital ecosystem services and sources of livelihoods.
MRD is looking for papers that Mountain communities are undergoing rapid sociocultural change, caused by drivers like outmigration, urbanization, and We thank authors and reviewers for their This study of postdisturbance tree cover dynamics following a large-scale windstorm showed that tree species composition after the storm was more diverse than before. It also seems to be resistant to harmful Mountain biodiversity provides billions of people with vital ecosystem services and sources of Mountains and mountain communities are critically affected by climate change.
MRD aims to bring together a set of papers that…. Papers in this Focus Issue analyze how asylum seekers, amenity migrants, and young people are being integrated in mountain villages in Europe; ask whether lifestyle migrants in Glaciers contribute significantly to water availability in Upper Khovd River Basin. With accumulation zones nearly gone, they are currently contributing their max potential The three pilot cases of Kyrgyzstan, Bolivia, and Using meltwater from glaciers, snow, and permafrost, mountain dwellers have developed sophisticated techniques to cope with recurrent water scarcity caused by glacier retreat Impact Factor: 1.
Aerial Photogrammetry for Glacial Monitoring
You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Notably, EIS is working within a tradition where time-lapse photography has been envisaged since the beginning as a scientific aid [Parkinson, , p.
While time-lapse imaging has been used to visualize plant growth, and endow such growth with a vivid sense of vitality [Gaycken, ], EIS uses the same technique to visualize the death of glaciers, and endow such death with a sense of devastation.
Acceleration of ice loss across the Himalayas over the past 40 years | Science Advances
By animating the death of melting glaciers through time-lapse photography, EIS makes a case for the ways in which the photographed movement of ice is itself evidence of climate change. Writing about fictional narratives, Mittell [quoted in Jenkins, Ford and Green, , p. Prior to more contemporary understandings of photographs as a form of demonstrative evidence, courts in the US relied on the doctrine of illustrative evidence.
When photographs are treated as illustrative evidence, they must be accompanied by a human eyewitness who can testify under oath to the accuracy of the visual image. While the notion of illustrative evidence was a judicial attempt to wrangle and mitigate the persuasive impact of machine-made testimonies in the 19 th century, it has since been eclipsed by demonstrative evidence as a recognizable alternative for deploying visual evidence in court [Mnookin, ], and to the general public.
Tied to the widespread belief in photographic truth — that is, the idea that the photograph is a more authoritative and privileged kind of evidence than other visual representations because of its ability to transcribe nature directly — demonstrative evidence, by the early 20 th century, came to refer to evidence that expressed itself directly to the senses [Mnookin, ].
Because of its sensory appeal, it could provide a compelling form of proof in and of itself. In touring exhibitions, these images travel without accompaniment by human EIS representatives. They judge the claim of climate change by potentially drilling down on further evidentiary clues to its existence and impact.
- The Elephant in the Boardroom: Speaking the Unspoken about Pastoral Transitions (Jossey-Bass Leadership Network Series);
- Swaddling Glaciers in Blankets Isn’t the Oddest Idea for Extending Their Lives;
- Ice, Snow, and Glaciers and the Water Cycle.
- Imagined Places:A Life in the twentieth century.
- Humans Tracked Iceland's Glaciers For Ages. Now, Tech Does.
- De la Coutume à la Loi en Polynésie orientale de 1767 à 1945 Tome 2 Les premiers codes de lois aux Iles sous le Vent (1820-1886) (French Edition).
- An introduction to Glacier Mass Balance.
For example, on the EIS website a whole range of educational materials have been developed and hyperlinked in order for audiences to learn more about glaciers themselves. The multimedia format of EIS photography makes these texts versatile, and thereby well-suited for circulation across many platforms and contexts.
Furthermore, the spreadability of these photographs allows for varying modes of audience engagement and interactivity, depending upon the context in which the texts are encountered.
- Authors and reviewers.
- Shrinking Patagonian Glaciers.
- Glaciers To See Before They’re Gone | Never Idle Journal!
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- Joe Belly Button!
- HOW EXERCISE CAN IMPROVE HEALTH AND BEHAVIOUR IN CHILDREN (HET STEPPING STONE 5 PHEW: Physically Holistic Exercise Workout) (Step by step guide to managing problem behaviour in children Book 6).
This, in turn, affects how audiences engage with EIS, in some instances as individual viewers, and in others as part of a collective viewing experience. This also allows more casual members of the audience to become aware of the science of glacial retreat without the level of commitment that drillability demands. In sum, the EIS story is spreadable because its photographs and videos, particularly in digital form, are portable, shareable, and easy-to-circulate [Jenkins, Ford and Green, ].
The Figure reveals the mix of old and new media forms and platforms that EIS has employed to bring its story of dying glaciers to diverse audiences. Further, its colour scale categorizes the varying degrees of audience participation that have been encouraged by different media forms and settings. The scale runs from cooler to warmer colours, with the former evoking less active forms of witnessing and engagement, and the latter representing more interactive ones.
They appear in audiovisual media coded in green in Figure 1 and print publications coded in blue. Visitors can see a customized EIS camera, learn about the technological innovations EIS made to capture compelling images of glaciers, and gain knowledge of the physical demands team members face travelling to remote EIS field locations. Lastly, EIS photography has been embedded onto social media platforms coded in red.
Because social media is a form of new media, there is a certain level of user interactivity built into the platform. These qualities have made EIS photography highly spreadable since it is easy for users to disseminate the images within their own social networks. Maintaining this active social media presence has enabled Internet users to follow EIS and engage with their story. They can do so by commenting on EIS content, sharing it within their social networks, or by subscribing to news feeds to keep informed of the latest EIS findings and updates.
Jenkins [ a ] describes continuity and multiplicity as opposing core principles of transmedia storytelling. Continuity refers to the characteristics of a story that remain consistent across its many different embodiments. Multiplicity, by contrast, refers to the potential for the same story to be retold in myriad ways across different contexts and settings. Hence, transmedia texts are most effective when the same artist or team members commit to shaping and consistently re telling a story for the different media contexts where it will be told [Jenkins, a ].
As both the primary author and coordinator of the EIS narrative, Balog and the EIS team have privileged and prioritized continuity over multiplicity. While EIS offers multiple photographic perspectives of retreating glaciers, the story of such retreat is conveyed consistently across a multitude of different platforms, contexts and settings. In so doing, there is a single unified storytelling experience for audiences rather than a story with mixed messages. Further, to enhance its own scientific credibility, EIS has established its own historical continuity with past scientific expeditions, particularly to those in which photography was used to enable the public to vicariously witness natural phenomena.
Accompanying scientists, expeditionary photographers often acted as direct eyewitnesses of natural phenomena that were geographically located in remote sites, requiring photographers to act as explorers of a new frontier. For instance, William Henry Jackson, the official photographer on the Hayden expedition, exhibited his photographs of natural landscapes in in Congress to help pass a Senate Bill that led to the creation of Yellowstone National Park [Taft, , p.
The images are only made possible because expeditionary photographers transported their cameras and equipment over long and hazardous trails [Taft, ], overcoming great personal and technological challenges during their expeditions. In short, expeditionary photographers take on the role of adventurous hero, which, in turn, corresponds with the principle of performance.
By tracing the EIS project back to the tradition of expeditionary photographers, Balog is able to represent himself as both a witness [Ritchin, , p. While EIS is a contemporary photographic expedition unrivaled in terms of scale and scope, the narratives used to tell the story of its expedition resonate with a common theme in historical narratives of polar exploration — namely, the heroism attached to the polar explorer.
That is, the EIS team has been repeatedly featured in their own stories about glacial retreat. Their appearance in these stories aligns with the narratives of polar explorer heroes. Like polar explorer heroes before them, members of the EIS team are on a mission of exploration, discovery and revelation, despite the many risks that they will encounter. These themes are clearly highlighted in the synopsis for Chasing Ice :. Traveling with a team of young adventurers across the brutal Arctic, Balog risks his career and his wellbeing in pursuit of the biggest story facing humanity.
As the debate polarizes America, and the intensity of natural disasters ramps up globally, Chasing Ice depicts a heroic photojournalist on a mission to deliver fragile hope to our carbon-powered planet [Submarine Deluxe, ]. Using EIS as a case study, this article has demonstrated how climate science can be effectively communicated to a wider audience through the interrelated concepts of witnessing and transmedia storytelling.
Are the glaciers in Glacier National Park growing? | Watts Up With That?
Some may seek to learn more about glacial retreat and climate change, or take some form of climate action. Others may simply become aware of the issue of extreme ice loss, and its connection to climate change. Across this continuum of audience engagement and interactivity, it should be noted that audiences are assumed to be active, even if they do no more than listen to the EIS story. By positioning its time-lapse animations of glacier melt as demonstrative evidence of climate change, EIS has positioned its audience as vicarious witnesses who bear some responsibility for what they are seeing.
As Balog puts it,. Because the EIS project links witnessing to a change in perception i. As one of the core principles of transmedia storytelling, and perhaps one of the most important principles associated with climate action, extractability refers to the aspects of the story that audiences can take away with them as resources to deploy in their everyday lives [Jenkins, b ].
Given our methodology, we are unable to offer insights on how diverse audiences actually interacted with the EIS project, nor on the extent to which the EIS story has resulted in meaningful public action. Hence, we urge future research to consider how audiences engage with scientific storytelling by asking: how do audiences encounter and react to scientific narratives? How do they choose to access and enter into the story itself? Moreover, what effects do transmedia narratives have on audiences for more sustained forms of engagement and potential action?
At what level — individual, collective, or systemic — do audiences conceptualize such action? Responding to these questions would help elaborate on the ways in which transmedia storytelling could be a valuable model for communicating science and scientific findings to more general audiences.
Frontiers for Young Minds
Such future research could also clarify whether transmedia storytelling facilitates more participatory engagements with climate science than the deficit model of science communication, and whether these audience interactions allow for greater knowledge of and connection to issues of climate science. American Society of Media Photographers 31st December Appenzeller, T. National Geographic. Balog, J. Extreme ice now. Washington, DC, U.
Time-lapse proof of extreme ice loss. Barthes, R. New York, NY, U. Bensaude Vincent, B. Public Understanding of Science 23 3 , pp.
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