According to inscriptions, surface tumors were surgically removed in a similar manner as they are removed today. Cancer develops when normal cells in a particular part of the body begin to grow out of control. There are different types of cancers; all types of cancer cells continue to grow, divide and re-divide instead of dying and form new abnormal cells. Some types of cancer cells often travel to other parts of the body through blood circulation or lymph vessels metastasis , where they begin to grow.
For example when a breast cancer cell spread to liver through blood circulation, the cancer is still called as breast cancer, not a liver cancer. Generally cancer cells develop from normal cells due to damage of DNA. Most of the time when ever DNA was damaged, the body is able to repair it, unfortunately in cancer cells, damaged DNA is not repaired. People can also inherit damaged DNA from parents, which accounts for inherited cancers. Cancer generally forms as a solid tumor. Some cancers like leukemia blood cancer do not form tumors. Instead, leukemia cells involve the blood and blood forming organs and circulate through other tissues where they grow.
Not all tumors are cancerous, some tumors are benign non-cancerous. Benign tumors do not grow and are not life threatening. Different types of cancer cells can behave differently. The risk of developing many types of cancers can be reduced by changes in lifestyle by quitting smoking and eating low fat diet.
If cancer is identified in early stage it is easy to treat and may have better chances for living many years. Hippocrates believed that the body contained 4 humors body fluids , a blood, b phlegm, c yellow bile and d black bile. Any imbalance of these fluids will result in disease and excess of black bile in a particular organ site was thought to cause cancer. This theory of cancer was standard through the Middle Ages for over years. During this period autopsies were prohibited for religious reasons, thus limiting knowledge about cancer.
This theory proposed that cancer formation was by fluid called lymph. Life was believed to consist of continuous movement of the fluids like as blood and lymph in the body. The lymph theory was supported in 17 th century that tumors grow from lymph constantly thrown out by the blood. Muller demonstrated that cancer is made up of cells but not with lymph in His student, Virchow determined that all cells including cancer cells were derived from other cells. Virchow proposed that chronic irritation was the cause of cancer.
Later Thiersch was showed that cancers metastasize through the spread of malignant cells and not through some unidentified fluid. Till 18 th century, scientists believed that cancer was contagious and spreads through parasite. By the middle of the 20th century, scientists began solving the complex problems of chemistry and biology behind cancer.
Later scientists learned how genes were worked and how they could be damaged by mutations. Scientists identified that cancer could be caused by chemicals carcinogens , radiation, viruses and also inherited from ancestors. Most carcinogens were damage the DNA, which led to abnormal growth of cells.
During the s, scientists discovered 2 important families of genes. These genes that cause normal cells to grow out of control and become cancer cells.
They are formed by the mutations of certain normal genes of the cell called proto-oncogenes genes that normally control how often a cell divides and the degree to which it differentiates. These are normal genes that control cell division, DNA repair and inform cells when to die.
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Scientists identified oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that are damaged by chemicals or radiation. Other genes have been discovered that are associated with cancers that run in families, such as thyroid, pancreas, rectum, colon, kidney, ovary and skin cancers. In Peyton Rou was discovered a type of cancer in chickens that was caused by Rous sarcoma virus. In , cancer was induced for the first time in rabbits by coal tar applied to skin.
As of today more than carcinogens chemical, physical, and biological were identified. USA —, Google Scholar. PubMed Google Scholar. Hunter WD, Martuza RL, Feigenbaum F, et al: Attenuated, replication-competent herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant G safety evaluation of intracerebral injection in nonhuman primates, J. Todo T, Feigenbaum F, Rabkin SD, et al: Vial shedding and biodistribution of G, a multimutated, conditionally-replicating herpes simplex virus type 1, after intracerebral inoculation in Aotus, Mol.
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